There are bright tones of yellow and red which dominate this piece, at they are used to fill the lady's outfit. She wears a red top with yellow skirt, and additional detail is that added to the latter. She also swings around a yellow cloth which itself has some detail embroidered in red. She also wears a necklace that is wrapped around twice and also a red flower with leaves in her hair. Her figure is outlined in blue, with some simple touches of black that complete her shoes. She also holds something in her left hand, perhaps a bouquet of white flowers but it is hard to tell without seeing the piece in person. It is likely that the gouache mentioned in the description was used for the outlines and then again for the detail, whilst watercolours filled the clothing with more translucent, bright tones of colour.
We do know that this was precisely a costume design for Scene I of the ballet Aleko. Chagall would, of course, use his talents for all manner of different artistic challenges and as his career developed he would receive all manner of different commission requests, some of which were financially beneficial, whilst others would have appealed to him more on a creative and artistic basis. Aleko was a ballet by Leonide Massine and Marc Chagall, which was known to have been inspired by Pushkin's poem Gypsies. Artist Chagall would therefore design the outfits for this production through these relatively simple but elegant watercolour paintings.
The piece is sized at 17 1/2 x 11 1/4" (44.5 x 28.6 cm) which is consistent with an artwork from a notepad, where every single sheet is precisely the same size. We do know that the item was bequethed to its present owners by Lillie P. Bliss, who likely would have contributed some of the other related items found within MoMA's collection. Their highlights include a number of famous Van Gogh paintings as well as some notable Jackson Pollock drawings, but there is just simply to much to enjoy here to really summarise a list of thousands of artworks and antiquities down to just a few items. It is best to visit and see what you like youself, and this remains one of the most visited art galleries and museums in the world, competing well with any venue in the world.